The History of Online Shopping

The internet is a fantastic and useful tool. With a click of our mouse we can read today’s news, play an online game and if we wish shop to our hearts content. But when did it all start? What is the history of Online Shopping and what does it mean to shop online?

Online shopping is the process a customer takes to purchase a service or product over the internet. In other words a consumer may at his or her leisure buy from the comfort of their own home products from an online store. This concept was first demonstrated before the World Wide Web was in use with real time transaction processed from a domestic television! The technology used was called Videotext and was first demonstrated in 1979 by M. Aldrick who designed and installed systems in the UK. By 1990 T. Berners-Lee created the first WWW server and browser, and by 1995 Amazon expanded its online shopping experiences.

The history of Online Shopping is amazing. Gone are the days of waiting in traffic and working our way through overcrowded stores. All we need is a computer, bank account, debit or credit card and voila freedom! From books, to cosmetics, clothing and accessories to name a few, shopping online is the answer to the 21st century. Simply find the website that offers the objects of your desire, price and delivery terms and in a matter of a few days your purchase is at your door. The advantages and convenience are obviously predictable as we are offered a broader selection, competitive pricing and a greater access to information in regards to our purchase. Online stores are usually available on a 24 hour basis, and permit consumers to shop at their leisure without any traveling and outside regular business hours!

Another point to take into consideration is that when the internet was first conceived it was not with the ideal that it would change the way we shop. On the contrary the web was created as a tool for communicating, which in time let to the convenience of shopping virtually. The history of online shopping by itself symbolizes the change in our society and has by now become a service used by business and regular shopper all over the world.

Shopping online is easy, fun and secure and has for many taken the place of the Saturday afternoon window shopping at the mail. Still considered as a fairly recent phenomenon, online shopping has without a doubt made the life of countless consumers easier and more convenient. May it be for a home loan, buying car or ordering your weekly groceries, the web has forever changed our outlook on shopping.

The history of online shopping shows to all that a good idea, great presentation, and a desire to offer the best to your customers can make a dream come true. Now considered tried and true, it will be interesting in the next 20 years or so to see where the History on online shopping will take us!

Online Shopping Lingo: Abbreviations and Acronyms

Visiting coupon, refunding or bargain sites may, at first, seem
Like visiting a foreign country. You see phrases such as:

GDA! BBW B & M BOGO on soaps, HTH

And you think WHAT? Huh? What are they talking about? What
Language is THAT?

(Translation: Good Deal Alert! Bath & Body Works
Brick-and-mortar store has buy-one-get-one on soaps, hope this
Helps!)

I mean, it's enough to make you want to TYHO!
(Tear Your Hair Out – I made that one up.)

Before you click away in frustration, let me reassure you that
It IS possible to speak like a native – you just need a guide to
The terminology, acronyms, abbreviations, definitions and common
Word usage found on rebate and premium product lists, coupon and
Online code lists, and reimbursement and trading forums.

Each site you visit may have its own particular phrases, but
Generally speaking the most common terms are found in the list
Below.

TTFN …

B & M = Brick & Mortar

B1G1F = Buy One Get One Free

BOGO = (the same as B1G1), Buy One, Get One (usually free)

C / O = Cash Off or Cents Off

CPN = Coupon

CRT = Cash Register Tape

CSR = Customer Service Reps

CVS = A pharmacy / drug store like Rite-Aid

DB = Dear / Darling / Darn Brother

DCRT = Dated Cash Register Receipt

DD * = Dear / Darling / Darn Daughter

DG = Dear / Darling / Darn Girlfriend

DH = Dear / Darling / Darn Husband

DND = Do Not Double

DS * = Dear / Darling / Darn Son

DUPES = Duplicates

DW = Dear / Darling / Darn Wife

EB = Extra Bucks (CVS)

ECB = Extra Care Bucks (CVS)

ESR = Easy Saver Rebate (Walgreens monthly rebate)

FAB = From another Board

GC = Gift Certificate

GDA = Good deal alert

GWP = Gift With Purchase

H / F = Handling Fee

HT / HGT = Hang tag

ISO = In Search Of

LMK = Let Me Know

LOL = Laughing Out Loud and / or Lots of Luck

LPG = Lower Price Guarantee

LSASE = Long self addressed stamped envelope

MIB = Mint in Box

MIL = Mother-in-Law

MMV = Mileage May Vary

MS = Mystery Shopper

NAZ = Name Address Zip code

NED = No expiration date

NIB = New in box

NOCC = No Credit Card

NWOT = New WithOut Tags

NWT = New With Tags

OBO = Or Best Offer

PLMK = Please let me know

POB = Post Office Box

POP = Proof of Purchase

PP = Purchase Price

PPHF = PayPal Handling fee

PREM (Premium) = An item received from a refund offer.

PSTG = Postage

Qualifier (Q) = Proof of Purchase.

RAOK = Random Act of Kindness

RP = Rewards Programs

SAHM = Stay At Home Mom

SASE = Self Addressed Stamped Envelope

SMP = Particularly Marked Packages

TMF = Try Me Free

TOS = Terms of Service

TTFN = Ta ta for now

TY / ty = Thank you

UNL = Unlimited

UPC = Universal Product Code

W / L or WL = Wish list

WAHM = Work at home mom

Winetags = coupons found around the neck of a wine bottle

YMMV = Your Merchandise (or Mileage) May Vary

* (Add an S for step _ so DSD is Dear / Darling / Darn Step-Daughter)

How to Fix Windows Not Genuine Error in Windows 7

"This copy of Windows is not genuine, go online and resolve now". This error message occurs when Microsoft finds that your Windows copy is counterfeit and not genuine. You may also encounter this error message after downloading certain Microsoft update. If you are sure that your Windows' copy is genuine, check the below mentioned detailed, Windows 7 support guide and follow the instructions to fix Windows is not genuine problem.

Instructions:

First make sure that you have a genuine copy of Windows 7 on your computer. If you purchased a valid license key and still not able to activate it, use the below mentioned workarounds.

Restore your computer to an earlier time and you are done. Doing so will roll back the changes that caused your Windows 7 computer to encounter this error message. Click the Start button and type 'restore' in the Start Search field. Hit the Enter key to continue. If prompted, enter your admin password and click Continue . Click the Choose a different restore point button and select a time to which you want your computer to be restored.

If prompted, confirm the action. When done and prompted, restart your computer to let the changes take place. When the computer loads back up, you will not see the Windows genuine alert anymore. If you recently installed new driver software (for your printer or router) that was uninstalled during the restore, reinstall them back. If the issue persists, skip to the next step.

Click the Start button and navigate to Control Panel. When in Control Panel, click Programs and Features and then click the Installed Updates link. Look for the Update for Microsoft Windows KB971033, click to select it, and then click the Uninstall button. If prompted, enter your admin password and confirm the action. When done, exit the Control Panel window and restart your computer. You can also remove the WGA tool if you desire to.

Click the Start button and type 'rsop.msc' (without quotes) in the Start Search field. Hit the Enter key to open Resultant Set of Policy (RSOP). If prompted, enter your admin password and click Continue. When in the Resultant Set of Policy window, click Computer Configuration and navigate to Windows Settings> Security Settings> and System Services. Look for Plug and Play in the right hand panel.

Make sure that its status under Startup is set to Not Defined. If it's not set to Not Defined, double-click it and change the Startup type to Automatic. Exit the Resultant Set of Policy window. Now press the Windows and R keys together on the keyboard to bring the Run window. When in the Run window, type 'gpupdate / force' and hit the Enter key. Exit the Run window and restart your computer. Check back if the alert has gone.

If the problem persists, open Run window again and type 'cmd' in the blank field. Hit the Enter key to continue. When in the Command Prompt window, type 'cd' (without quotes) and hit Enter . Type 'dir * wga *. * / S' and hit the Enter key. It will display a string of results; Make a note of their paths, especially of the folders that has WGA files. When done, exit the Command Prompt window.

Look for the WGA files in the places you made a note of and rename or delete them. If you see the 'Access Denied' error message, you may have to take ownership of the files to make such changes. When done, release the ownership. Restart your computer and you are done. The error message should not appear anymore.

Additional Info:

If you are not able to get rid of the genuine alert message by yourself, contact Windows 7 technical support.

A Guide to PC Memory

When it comes to improving the performance of your PC, purchasing additional RAM is despite the least expensive yet most effective route a person can take. While the solution appears simple, the dizzying array of memory available for purchase today can make the actual decision process problematic for all but the tech-savvy individuals. A very wide selection of differenting RAM types are available for purchase today, SDRAM, EDO, RDRAM, and DRAM to name a few. Knowing how to determine what RAM types are compatible with your current PC setup and what RAM choice will give you the greatest performance are key to making the correct decision.

The purpose of this guide is to give the reader a general understanding of what RAM is, what types of RAM exist, and how to decide what RAM would make the best purchase choice.

What is RAM?

The acronym RAM stands for Random Access Memory. RAM is where data is stored within your PC so that said data can be accessed by your PC's processor, or CPU. RAM should be considered as temporary memory within your PC, in order for RAM to maintain its data storage it must receive a continuous pulse of electricity. Any data that exists solely within a PC's RAM will be deleted when the PC is shut off or loses power.

PC's utilize several common technologies to store data internally on a more permanent level than RAM. These storage mediums include ROM – Read Only Memory, Hard Drives – which store data magnetically in a permanent – or depending on your usage – semi-permanent fashion, CDRWs, DVDRWs, Floppy Disks and Tapes. All of these data storage methods can be considered more reliable than RAM data storage, although none of them offer the speed of data access that RAM does.

RAM stores data that is essential for a PCs immediate operation and does so in an extremely fast and reliable way. RAM allows for a PC to operate at speeds that would be unachievable if it were replaced by more permanent data storage mediums. Think of RAM as a "fast lane" on an expressway. RAM allows for a function or application's most important data to have the fastest possible access to the processor. RAM exists as a "fast lane" for data that needs immediate attention by your PCs CPU. As such, the more RAM your PC has accesses to, the more "fast lanes" that are available for your PC's functions and applications to access your PC's CPU, the faster your PC will perform.

Types of RAM

SDRAM, DDR-SDRAM and RAMBUS are the three major types of RAM, or PC memory, in use today.

Modern RAM

Before the introduction of SDRAM, PC memory is operated asynchronously from a PC's Clock Speed. This asynchronous operation would create data bottlenecks within a PC itself and slow overall performance. Clock speed is the speed at which a microprocessor executes instructions; Every computer contains an internal clock that regulates the rate at which data is processed and synchronizes a PC's individual components. As it stands to reason, the faster a PC's clock speed, the faster a PC's CPU can process data. Before RAM was synchronized to operate at the same speed as the rest of a PC's components, a PC's CPU would be would be forced into the occasional delay while waiting for the RAM to be available to accept data. In theory, as long as SDRAM operated at the same speed as the system clock, it would be available to the system on a regular and consistent basis – thus eliminating data bottlenecks. By regulating RAM and tying its performance to the system clock, memory manufacturers have been forced to increase memory performance to match PC clock speeds.

SDRAM:

SDRAM – Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory – was the natural result of the PC industries search for better RAM and PC performance.

SDRAM is available 66, 100 and 133MHz speeds, known as PC66, PC100 and PC133 respectively. 66MHz RAM, in theory, would perform 66.6 million cycles per second and would be compatible with a 66MHz clock speed. Generally memory is considered to be backward compatible, so a pc with a clock speed of 100MHz could accept a memory module with a clock speed of 100MHz. The drawback being that the memory will only operate at the 100MHz speed.

SDRAM is no longer the memory of choice for modern PC's, however, due to the many PCs still on the market that utilize SDRAM, it is certain that memory manufacturers will continue to produce this memory for some time. SDRAM has been in the marketplace for some time and as such is widely available for purchase as a used yet guaranteed product. This used availability offers the buyer the opportunity to save a great deal of money on its purchase, yet sacrifice a bare minimum with regard to reliability as RAM has no moving parts and is generally very durable and long lasting.

DDR-SDRAM:

DDR and DDR2 – Double Data Rate SDRAM – was again a natural result of the PC Industries search for better RAM and PC Performance. DDR memory has been available since the late 1990's and is a great leap forward in RAM performance. Essentially, DDR RAM achieves its improved performance by transferring data to the processor twice, instead of once in the case of SDRAM, per clock cycle. Theoretically, a RAM module that refreshes the processor twice per clock cycle should equate to twice the performance offered by SDRAM. In reality DDR does not really offer twice the performance of SDRAM, however it is a signaling improvement over the older standard.

Types of DDR and DDR2 memory that are available include PC1600 – 200MHz, PC2200 – 533MHz, PC4200 – 533MHz, PC4200 – 533MHz, PC3500 – 400MHz, PC3500 – The first number represents the maximum memory bandwidth, in megabytes, that a RAM module can provide per second. The second number, MHz, is the clock speed that the module is compatible with. As with SDRAM, the memory is backward compatible, a PC2100 chip with a 266MHz clock speed with work with a PC with a clock speed of both 266MHz and 200MHz.

DDR and DDR2 memory are the current standard in the PC industry and will continue to be manufactured for some time. As with SDRAM, DDR and DDR2 types have been in the market for some time and are available as used or refurbished. Both used and refurbished DDR memory can offer substantial savings when purchased while giving the user similar reliability to new product.

RAMBUS:

RAMBUS – RDRAM – was developed by the RAMBUS Corporation and can be considered to be a proprietary version of RAM as only the RAMBUS company manufacturers it. RAMBUS is a high-performance version of RAM generally found in high-end business class PCs. Today very few manufacturers use the RAMBUS standard as DDR and DDR2 memory offers similar, and in some cases better performance. RAMBUS memory can be found in speeds of PC800, PC1066 and PC1200. Usually you can purchase RAMBUS PC800- () the () will contain a number that references the chips speed in nano-seconds, ie PC800-45.

Memory and Performance:

While adding more memory does not ensure faster performance, not enough memory will guarantee slow downs. Having plenty of memory installed on your PC helps to ensure that your PC operates at its peak speeds and efficiency. Adding memory almost always results in a performance boost, especially if you run larger applications or multiple applications simultaniously. It is important to note that if you triple your current installed memory you will not see a three-fold boost in performance. You will almost always see some gain in performance, but you will go a long way in eliminating slow downs.

It will always be my contention and a good rule of thumb that you can never have too much memory. Maxing out you configuration with memory will help to guarantee the peak performance of your PC.

How to Choose Memory:

Choosing memory is dependent on several factors. First is the consideration of compatibility. Whether you are building a new PC or simply adding memory to an existing system, it is of key importance that the memory you purchase is compatible with your motherboard. Most motherboards accept a specific standard of memory, SDRAM, DDR, DDR2 or RAMBUS. To determine what type of memory that your PC will accept, you can either consult your motherboards owners' manual, or, if this is not available, inspecting the motherboard for brand and model number will allow you to go online and determine the compatible memory type .

Generally a motherboard that accepts SDRAM will accept memory modules that have a higher rated speed in MHz than what is specified by the board's manufacturer. For example, if your current motherboard has a clock speed of 66MHz and accepts PC66 SDRAM, you can install either PC100 or PC133 RAM chips. The board will only utilize the memory at its maximum speed however, so a PC133 SDRAM module will only operate at 66MHz speed. It is important to determine what RAM speeds – MHz – that your board is compatible with before making a purchase.

You should also consult either you owners manual or online documentation to determine the maximum memory that your board will support and physically inspect the board to determine how many available memory slots there are. Usually you will want to use the largest and fastest RAM chips that your board will support and fill all available slots with matching memory speeds. For example, your board has three available slots and currently one is in use by a DDR PC2100 266MHz RAM module. You discover that your board will accept DDR RAM up to PC2700 333MHz speeds. If you were to fill the remaining to slots with PC2700 memory, your memory would only function at the speed of the slowest RAM module, in this case 266 MHz.

New vs. Used:

Due to the sheer amount of memory manufactured within the last years, you will find an abundance of used memory for sale. When it comes to getting the most for your money, it should be noted that purchasing used memory is a great way to save money while getting similar reliability and performance as compared to new. RAM has no moving parts to speak of and as such is highly durable and reliable.

Spend some time researching prices between new and used memory modules. If you can purchase used or refurbished modules from sellers who will offer warranties, you may be making a major mistake spending that extra money on new RAM.

A little research on your part can help you to not only ensure that you see the maximum performance out of your PC set up, but also go a long way toward saving you money both in the short and long term.

Copyright 2006 www.hcditrading.com , Brad Calli